Versatile role of miR-24/24-1*/24-2*expression in cancer and other human diseases
|Versatile role of miR-24/24-1*/24-2*expression in cancer and other human diseases
|Year of Publication
|Mukherjee S, Shelar B, Krishna S
|AMERICAN JOURNAL OF TRANSLATIONAL RESEARCH
MiRNAs (miRs) have been proven to be well-validated therapeutic targets. Emerging evidence has demonstrated that intricate, intrinsic and paradoxical functions of miRs are context-dependent because of their multiple upstream regulators, broad spectrum of downstream molecular targets and distinct expression in various tissues, organs and disease states. Targeted therapy has become an emerging field of research. One key for the development of successful miR-based/targeted therapy is to acquire integrated knowledge of its regulatory network and its association with disease phenotypes to identify critical nodes of the underlying pathogenesis. Herein, we systematically summarized the comprehensive role of miR-24-3p (miR-24), along with its passenger strands miR24-1-5p* (miR-24-1) and miR-24-2-5p* (miR-24-2), emphasizing their microenvironment, intracellular targets, and associated gene networks and regulatory phenotypes in 18 different cancer types and 13 types of other disorders. MiR-24 targets and regulates numerous genes in various cancer types and enhances the expression of several oncogenes (e.g., cMyc, BCL2 and HIF1), which are challenging in terms of druggability. In contrast, several tumor suppressor proteins (p21 and p53) have been reported to be downregulated by miR-24. MiR-24 also regulates the cell cycle and is associated with numerous cancer hallmarks such as apoptosis, proliferation, metastasis, invasion, angiogenesis, autophagy, drug resistance and other diseases pathogenesis. Overall, miR-24 plays an emerging role in the diagnosis, prognosis and pathobiology of various diseases. MiR-24 is a potential target for targeted therapy in the era of precision medicine, which expands the landscape of targetable macromolecules, including undruggable proteins.