Understanding the Genome-Wide Transcription Response To Various cAMP Levels in Bacteria Using Phenomenological Models.
|Understanding the Genome-Wide Transcription Response To Various cAMP Levels in Bacteria Using Phenomenological Models.
|Year of Publication
|Chakraborty S, Singh P, Seshasayee ASai Narain
|2022 Nov 21
Attempts to understand gene regulation by global transcription factors have largely been limited to expression studies under binary conditions of presence and absence of the transcription factor. Studies addressing genome-wide transcriptional responses to changing transcription factor concentration at high resolution are lacking. Here, we create a data set containing the entire Escherichia coli transcriptome in Luria-Bertani (LB) broth as it responds to 10 different cAMP concentrations spanning the biological range. We use the Hill's model to accurately summarize individual gene responses into three intuitively understandable parameters, , , and , reflecting the sensitivity, nonlinearity, and midpoint of the dynamic range. Our data show that most cAMP-regulated genes have an of >2, with their values centered around the wild-type concentration of cAMP. Additionally, cAMP receptor protein (CRP) affinity to a promoter is correlated with but not , hinting that a high-affinity CRP promoter need not ensure transcriptional activation at lower cAMP concentrations and instead affects the magnitude of the response. Finally, genes belonging to different functional classes are tuned to have different , , and values. We demonstrate that phenomenological models are a better alternative for studying gene expression trends than classical clustering methods, with the phenomenological constants providing greater insights into how genes are tuned in a regulatory network. Different genes may follow different trends in response to various transcription factor concentrations. In this study, we ask two questions: (i) what are the trends that different genes follow in response to changing transcription factor concentrations and (ii) what methods can be used to extract information from the gene trends so obtained. We demonstrate a method to analyze transcription factor concentration-dependent genome-wide expression data using phenomenological models. Conventional clustering methods and principal-component analysis (PCA) can be used to summarize trends in data but have limited interpretability. The use of phenomenological models greatly enhances the interpretability and thus utility of conventional clustering. Transformation of dose-response data into phenomenological constants opens up avenues to ask and answer many different kinds of question. We show that the phenomenological constants obtained from the model fits can be used to generate insights about network topology and allows integration of other experimental data such as chromatin immunoprecipitation sequencing (ChIP-seq) to understand the system in greater detail.