TitleA Survey of Models of Cell Membranes: Toward a New Understanding of Membrane Organization.
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication2023
AuthorsMayor S, Bhat A, Kusumi A
JournalCold Spring Harb Perspect Biol
Date Published2023 Oct 03
KeywordsActin Cytoskeleton, Cell Membrane, Membrane Lipids, Proteins

The cell membrane, the boundary that separates living cells from their environment, has been the subject of study for over a century. The fluid-mosaic model of Singer and Nicolson in 1972 proposed the plasma membrane as a two-dimensional fluid composed of lipids and proteins. Fifty years hence, advances in biophysical and biochemical tools, particularly optical imaging techniques, have allowed for a better understanding of the physical nature, organization, and composition of cell membranes. This has been made possible by visualizing membrane heterogeneities and their dynamics and appreciating the asymmetrical arrangement of lipids in living cell membranes. Despite these advances, mechanisms underlying the local spatiotemporal organization of membrane components remain unclear. This review surveys various models of membrane organization, culminating in a new model that incorporates nonequilibrium processes and forces exerted by interactions with extramembrane elements such as the actin cytoskeleton. The proposed model provides a comprehensive understanding of membrane organization, taking into account the dynamic nature of the cell membrane and its interactions with its immediate environment.

Alternate JournalCold Spring Harb Perspect Biol
PubMed ID37643877
PubMed Central IDPMC10547391