TitleStructural insights into the role of deleterious mutations at the dimeric interface of Toll-like receptor interferon-β related adaptor protein.
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication2024
AuthorsVerma S, Menon R, Sowdhamini R
Date Published2024 May 30

Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are major players in the innate immune system-recognizing pathogens and differentiating self/non-self components of immunity. These proteins are present either on the plasma membrane or endosome and recognize pathogens at their extracellular domains. They are characterized by a single transmembrane helix and an intracellular toll-interleukin-1 receptor (TIR) domain. Few TIRs directly invoke downstream signaling, while others require other TIR domains of adaptors like TIR domain-containing adaptor-inducing interferon-β (TRIF) and TRIF-related adaptor molecule (TRAM). On recognizing pathogenic lipopolysaccharides, TLR4 dimerises and interacts with the intracellular TRAM dimer through the TIR domain to recruit a downstream signaling adaptor (TRIF). We have performed an in-depth study of the structural effect of two mutations (P116H and C117H) at the dimeric interface of the adaptor TRAM, which are known to abrogate downstream signaling. We modeled the structure and performed molecular dynamics studies in order to decipher the structural basis of this effect. We observed that these mutations led to an increased radius of gyration of the complex and resulted in several changes to the interaction energy values when compared against the wild type (WT) and positive control mutants. We identified highly interacting residues as hubs in the WT dimer, and a few such hubs that were lost in the mutant dimers. Changes in the protein residue path, hampering the information flow between the crucial A86/E87/D88/D89 and T155/S156 sites, were observed for the mutants. Overall, we show that such residue changes can have subtle but long-distance effects, impacting the signaling path allosterically.

Alternate JournalProteins
PubMed ID38814166
Grant ListJBR/2021/000006 / / Science and Engineering Research Board, India /
BT/PR40187/BTIS/137/9/2021 / / Department of Biotechnology, India /
IBAB/MSCB/182/2022 / / Institute of Bioinformatics and Applied Biotechnology /