Riluzole prevents stress-induced spine plasticity in the hippocampus but mimics it in the amygdala.
|Riluzole prevents stress-induced spine plasticity in the hippocampus but mimics it in the amygdala.
|Year of Publication
|Naskar S, Datta S, Chattarji S
Stress elicits divergent patterns of structural plasticity in the amygdala and hippocampus. Despite these contrasting effects, at least one of the immediate consequences of stress - elevated levels of extracellular glutamate - is similar in both brain areas. This raises the possibility that the contrasting effects of stress on neuronal plasticity is shaped by differences in astrocytic glutamate clearance in these two brain areas. Although astrocytes play a key role in glutamate reuptake, past analyses of, and interventions against, stress-induced plasticity have focused largely on neurons. Hence, we tested the impact of riluzole, which potentiates glutamate clearance by astrocytic glutamate transporters, on principal neurons and astrocytes in the basal amygdala (BA) and hippocampal area CA1. Chronic immobilization stress reduced spine-density on CA1 pyramidal neurons of male rats. Riluzole, administered in the drinking water during chronic stress, prevented this decrease; but, the drug by itself had no effect. In contrast, the same chronic stress enhanced spine-density on BA principal neurons, and this effect, unlike area CA1, was not reversed by riluzole. Strikingly, riluzole treatment alone also caused spinogenesis in the BA. Thus, the same riluzole treatment that prevented the effect of stress on spines in the hippocampus, mimicked its effect in the amygdala. Further, chronic stress and riluzole alone decreased the neuropil volume occupied by astrocytes in both the BA and CA1 area. Riluzole treatment in stressed animals, however, did not reverse or further add to this reduction in either region. Thus, while the effects on astrocytes were similar, neuronal changes were distinct between the two areas following stress, riluzole and the two together. Therefore, similar to the impact of repeated stress, pharmacological potentiation of glutamate clearance, with or without stress, also leads to differential effects on dendritic spines in principal neurons of the amygdala and hippocampus. This highlights differences in the astrocytic glutamate reuptake machinery that are likely to have important functional consequences for stress-induced dysfunction, and its reversal, in two brain areas implicated in stress-related psychiatric disorders.
|PubMed Central ID