In Ovo and Ex Ovo Methods to Study Avian Inner Ear Development.
|Title||In Ovo and Ex Ovo Methods to Study Avian Inner Ear Development.|
|Publication Type||Journal Article|
|Year of Publication||2022|
|Authors||Singh N, Prakash A, Chakravarthy SRanganath, Kaushik R, Ladher RK|
|Journal||J Vis Exp|
|Date Published||2022 Jun 16|
|Keywords||Animals, Chickens, Cochlea, Hair Cells, Auditory, Mammals, Mice, Organ of Corti, Vestibule, Labyrinth|
The inner ear perceives sound and maintains balance using the cochlea and vestibule. It does this by using a dedicated mechanosensory cell type known as the hair cell. Basic research in the inner ear has led to a deep understanding of how the hair cell functions, and how dysregulation can lead to hearing loss and vertigo. For this research, the mouse has been the pre-eminent model system. However, mice, like all mammals, have lost the ability to replace hair cells. Thus, when trying to understand cellular therapies for restoring inner ear function, complementary studies in other vertebrate species could provide further insights. The auditory epithelium of birds, the basilar papilla (BP), is a sheet of epithelium composed of mechanosensory hair cells (HCs) intercalated by supporting cells (SCs). Although the anatomical architecture of the basilar papilla and the mammalian cochlea differ, the molecular mechanisms of inner ear development and hearing are similar. This makes the basilar papilla a useful system for not only comparative studies but also to understand regeneration. Here, we describe dissection and manipulation techniques for the chicken inner ear. The technique shows genetic and small molecule inhibition methods, which offer a potent tool for studying the molecular mechanisms of inner ear development. In this paper, we discuss in ovo electroporation techniques to genetically perturb the basilar papilla using CRIPSR-Cas9 deletions, followed by dissection of the basilar papilla. We also demonstrate the BP organ culture and optimal use of culture matrices, to observe the development of the epithelium and the hair cells.
|Alternate Journal||J Vis Exp|