Endophytic Bacteria in Plant Salt Stress Tolerance: Current and Future Prospects
|Title||Endophytic Bacteria in Plant Salt Stress Tolerance: Current and Future Prospects|
|Publication Type||Journal Article|
|Year of Publication||2019|
|Authors||Vaishnav A, Shukla AK, Sharma A, Kumar R, Choudhary DK|
|Journal||Journal of Plant Growth Regulation|
Soil salinity is a major limiting factor for crop productivity worldwide and is continuously increasing owing to climate change. A wide range of studies and practices have been performed to induce salt tolerance mechanisms in plants, but their result in crop improvement has been limited due to lack of time and money. In the current scenario, there is increasing attention towards habitat-imposed plant stress tolerance driven by plant-associated microbes, either rhizospheric and/or endophytic. These microbes play a key role in protecting plants against various environmental stresses. Therefore, the use of plant growth-promoting microbes in agriculture is a low-cost and eco-friendly technology to enhance crop productivity in saline areas. In the present review, the authors describe the functionality of endophytic bacteria and their modes of action to enhance salinity tolerance in plants, with special reference to osmotic and ionic stress management. There is concrete evidence that endophytic bacteria serve host functions, such as improving osmolytes, anti-oxidant and phytohormonal signaling and enhancing plant nutrient uptake efficiency. More research on endophytes has enabled us to gain insights into the mechanism of colonization and their interactions with plants. With this information in mind, the authors tried to solve the following questions: (1) how do benign endophytes ameliorate salt stress in plants? (2) What type of physiological changes incur in plants under salt stress conditions? And (3), what type of determinants produced by endophytes will be helpful in plant growth promotion under salt stress?