TitleCone Snail Glutaminyl Cyclase Sequences from Transcriptomic Analysis and Mass Spectrometric Characterization of Two Pyroglutamyl Conotoxins.
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication2018
AuthorsVijayasarathy M, Basheer SM, Balaram P
JournalJ Proteome Res
Date Published2018 Aug 03

The post-translational modification of N-terminal glutamine (Q) to a pyroglutamyl (Z) residue is observed in the conotoxins produced by marine cone snails. This conversion requires the action of the enzyme glutaminyl cyclase (QC). Four complete QC sequences from the species C. araneosus, C. frigidus, C. litteratus, and C. monile and two partial sequences from C. amadis and C. miles have been obtained by analysis of transcriptomic data. Comparisons with mammalian enzyme sequences establish a high level of identity and complete conservation of functional active site residues, including a cluster of hydrogen-bonded acidic side chains. Mass spectrometric analysis of crude venom samples coupled to conotoxin precursor protein sequences obtained from transcriptomic data establishes the presence of pyroglutamyl conotoxins in the venom of C. frigidus and C. amadis. The C. frigidus peptide belongs to the M superfamily, with cysteine framework III, whereas the C. amadis peptide belongs to the divergent superfamily with cysteine framework VI/VII. Additionally, gamma carboxylation of glutamic acid and hydroxylation of proline are observed in the C. frigidus peptide. Mass spectral data are available via ProteomeXchange with identifier PXD009006.

Alternate JournalJ. Proteome Res.
PubMed ID29947227