Brain circuits at risk in psychiatric diseases and pharmacological pathways.
|Title||Brain circuits at risk in psychiatric diseases and pharmacological pathways.|
|Publication Type||Journal Article|
|Year of Publication||2021|
|Authors||Spedding M, Chattarji S, Spedding C, Jay TM|
|Date Published||2021 Mar-Apr|
The multiple brain circuits involved in psychiatric diseases may appear daunting, but we prefer to concentrate on a select few, with a particular sensitivity to stress and neurodevelopmental issues, with a clear pharmacotherapy. This review is structured around 1. the key circuits, their role in health and disease, and the neurotransmitters maintaining them, 2. The influence of upbringing, stress, chronobiology, inflammation and infection, 3. The genetic and epigenetic influence on these circuits, particularly regarding copy number variants and neuronal plasticity, 4. The use and abuse of pharmacological agents with the particular risks of stress and chronobiology at critical periods. A major emphasis is placed on the links between hippocampus, prefrontal cortex and amygdala/periaqueductal grey which control specific aspects of cognition, mood, pain and even violence. Some of the research findings were from the innovative medicine initiative (IMI) NEWMEDS, a 22M€ academic/industrial consortium on the brain circuits critical for psychiatric disease.